How Mountains Strengthen the Earth's Crust
The Earth's mountains have come about as a result of movements and clashes of huge plates which make up the planet's crust. When two of these plates collide, one usually slides under the other. The plate on top is pushed up and so forms mountains. At the same time, the plate at the bottom proceeds under the ground and forms a deep protrusion. This means that mountains have deep downward protrusions that are as large as those visible on the surface. In other words, mountains are firmly rooted in the Earth's layer called the mantle.
Therefore, mountains effectively clench the Earth's plates by stretching above and below the ground at the conjunctions of these plates. In this way, mountains prevent the crust of the Earth from sliding on the magma layer or between its own layers. In short, we may compare mountains to nails firmly holding pieces of wood together. This characteristic of the mountains, through counteracting the unstable nature of the Earth's crust, prevents shocks to a significant degree.
These magnificent-looking mountains also have other roles to play in maintaining certain balances on the Earth, especially in dispersing heat.
The temperature difference between the equator and the Earth's poles is about 100°C (212°F). If such a difference arose on the surface level, storms at blinding speeds reaching 1,000 km (621 miles) per hour would devastate the Earth. However the uneven surface of the Earth blocks strong air currents that such heat differences could cause. These mountain ranges begin with the Himalayas in China, continue with the Taurus mountain range in southern Turkey, and then again up into the Alps of Europe. The mountain ranges of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans also figure into this equation.
Like all other details on the Earth, what is manifested in the mountains is part of the endless art of Allah. Allah has created the world where we live in a perfect way. Seeing these magnificent examples, what man must acknowledge is that the most important fact of his life is his duty to serve Allah and to work for this and this alone. Because man is in need of countless blessings, whereas Allah is Rich Beyond Need.